Current Issue

Vol. 53,  No. 2,  2023

Sector-Wise Carbon Efficiency for Sustainable Development of Indian Economy: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Satrajit Dutta 1 and 2Soumyananda Dinda
1Gorubathan Government College, Kalimpong, West Bengal, India and 2University of Burdwan, Bardhaman, West Bengal, India

Abstract: Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) is an important component of sustainable development for Just Transition to reach Net Zero by 2050. It encompasses the elements of decoupling economic growth and emission, life cycle approach for minimisation of resource use and inclusiveness with job Causality. The present study investigates the progress of SCP in terms of impact decoupling concept by measuring the relative carbon emission efficiencies and rankings of different economic sectors of India by using Constant Returns to Scale (CRS) and Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) methods of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. The applied method is in consonance with life cycle approach by calculating carbon emission from both direct and indirect fossil fuel consumption. Industry has the lowest relative ranking in terms of carbon efficiency, followed by transport and residential sectors due to low average scale efficiency. The study identifies carbon-intensive fuel consumption structure as a prime factor. It prioritises carbon efficiency in Industry due to its linkage with other sectors and also in power sector because of growing electrification.

Key Words: Data envelopment analysis, Electricity, Emissions, Overall technical efficiency, Sustainable consumption and production, Total final energy consumption

Female Farmers Accessing Opportunities Through an Emerging Land Market in Tanzania

Meine Pieter Van Dijk
Maastricht School of Management, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Abstract: A land market is emerging in Tanzania. To assess its effects on female farmers, a survey has been undertaken. The transformation process started by creating the right ecosystem through initiating frugal innovations (a crop insurance) and allowing private initiatives and thus may lead to a green revolution. To what extent do farmers benefit from this new ecosystem? The results show that they are benefitting less than the male farmers, because they have access to less land and focus on horticultural production for household consumption instead of using the hybrid maize seeds and complementary inputs, needed for commercial production. However, the land market, the specialization in horticulture and the number of projects for women in this sector provide opportunities for women to improve their situation.

Key Words:Land governance; Female farmers; Emerging land market; Hybrid maize; Frugal innovation; Green revolution

Trading Dynamics of Different Investor Groups in Indian Stock Market

Shreyosi Pal and Arup Chattopadhyay
University of Burdwan, Bardhaman, West Bengal, India

Abstract: Stock market is an attractive destination for investors. To understand how FIIs, DIIs and ‘other investors’ influence each other’s trading activities in the Indian stock market, various econometric tools like Granger Causality, VAR model, Variance decomposition analysis, Impulse Response Function and GMM for estimations are applied. Both way causalities are found between FIIs and DIIs net trading, whereas other investors’ net investment is substantially caused by FIIs and DIIs investment pattern. Further, FIIs and DIIs being sophisticated investors are strongly competing with each other in stock trading, following the opposite market strategies. Again, opposite trading relation of domestic investors—both institutional and ‘other investors’—with FIIs is evident in contemporaneous period as well. These trading patterns help preserve stability in the Indian stock market.

Key Words: FIIs, DIIs, Other investors, Granger causality, Vector Autoregression (VAR) model, Generalized Method of Moments (GMM)

Decentralisation and District Development Planning in Maharashtra: A District Level Analysis

Priyanka Bokil and Anurag Asawa
Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, India

Abstract: Fiscal and political decentralisation is a distinctive characteristic of democratic countries in present times. The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments to the Indian constitution aimed at strengthening the decentralised structure of Indian Polity and devolution of fiscal responsibility to the lowest levels of government. The same amendments propagated the idea of decentralised development planning (Art. 243ZD) wherein the local self-governments were entrusted with the responsibility to develop the plans for social and economic development and ensure socio-economic justice, and it also mandated setting up of District Planning Committee (DPC). This paper analyses the distribution of plan funds for district-level planning in Maharashtra for the period from 2011-12 to 2020-21, along with exploring the history and structure of decentralised planning in Maharashtra. The findings show that the distribution or allocation of plan funds to the districts for district-level planning differs significantly for certain districts compared to the formula-based allocations which are used to convey the initial allocation or ceilings to the districts for formulating the district annual plan. The divergence is attributed to additional demand put forward and justified by the districts over and above the formula-based allocations and its acceptance by the Planning Department of the state. However, there is no fixed criterion for approval of higher/additional demands and the proportion of additional allocation approved over and above the ceiling. The paper suggests that adherence to formula-based allocation is better suited for the equitable distribution of district plan funds.

Key words:Decentralisation, District planning committee, Grassroot level planning, Local self government, District plan allocations

Determinants of Income Earned by Women Working in The Urban Informal Sector in India: An Empirical Study

Paramjit1,Sonia Goel2, Apoorva Gupta3 and Sumanjeet Singh2
1Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi, India 2Ramjas College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India 3Hansraj College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Abstract: Income earned by women has a close link with their empowerment. Good work conditions can bring about changes in women’s ability to earn better income which in turn improves women’s intra household bargaining power, help them to access and use resources for their betterment, and encourage them to make better decisions. Using the data from a primary survey of working women in the urban informal sector in three states of India, viz., Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi, this paper argues that access to good work conditions increases women’s ability to earn higher income. This paper finds that there is a direct relationship between income earned by the women in the highest income category and improvement in work conditions, while there is an inverse relationship between the income earned by the women in the lowest and middle income slabs and the work condition.

Key words:Work condition, Women empowerment, Income of women, Informal sector, India

Labour Process Organization in Carpet Industry of Kashmir with Special Focus on Deskilling of Carpet Weavers

Ishfaq Majeed
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract: The present paper attempts to study the labour process in carpet industry of Kashmir. The researcher also investigates the production relationships, economic analysis, organisational hierarchy, and deskilling in the carpet manufacturing sector. Weavers heavily rely on the capital of middlemen and master weavers, and the character of institutional arrangements has a significant impact on the labour process. The relationship between middlemen/master weavers and dependent/wage workers is related to the deskilling characteristic. In some cases, the labour process is defined by the unity of conception and execution, which is associated with independent weavers.

Key words:Labour process, Deskilling, Carpet industry, Organization of production, Production relations.

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