Vol. 51, No. 2, 2021
Multidimensional Poverty among Social Groups in Kerala and Bihar: A Decomposition Analysis
Anvesak, Vol. 51 (2), pp. 1-17, Received: 22 Oct. 2021; accepted: 29 Dec. 2021
K. C. Baiju*
1Central University of Kerala, Kerala, India
Abstract: This paper aims to analyse the incidence and magnitude of multidimensional poverty among various social groups in two states of India — Kerala and Bihar — through the capability approach using household-level primary data. These regions are placed in the extreme positions in Human Development Index (HDI) ranking and growth trajectory in India. Incidence, intensity, and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) of the social groups are estimated using the methodological framework of Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and analysed within the human development framework. Decomposition of MPI reveals a disproportionate burden of incidence and proportional intensity of multidimensional poverty among Scheduled Tribe (ST) households in Kerala and Bihar, irrespective of their attainment in human development. In multidimensional analysis of poverty, deprivation of ST households alone explains more than half of all people’s deprivation in Kerala. The paper highlights the influence of social identity of households and their inadequate attainment of elementary functionings such as education, health, and standard of living on the deprivation of social groups leading to unequal human development outcomes of the regions.
Key Words: Multidimensional poverty, Deprivation, Human development, Social groups, Capabilities, Social identity
Mapping the Multidimensionality of Medical Care Related Catastrophe on Households: A Study of Four Blocks in Birbhum District, West Bengal
Anvesak, Vol. 51 (2), pp. 18-37, Received: 3 Apr. 2021; accepted: 29 Nov. 2021
Priyanka Dasgupta* and Subrata Mukherjee
Institute of Development Studies Kolkata, Kolkata, India
Abstract: Studies on medical expenses catastrophe is defined by a situation when household’s out- of-pocket medical expenditure crosses a certain percentage of its income or total consumption expenditure. This approach has a number of limitations as it relies heavily on money-metric consumption data and is threshold-oriented as well. This paper, on the contrary, looks at medical care related ‘catastrophe’ from a multidimensional perspective. We find that larger household size, and presence of elderly, children, and chronically as well as acutely ill members in a family significantly increases healthcare utilisation and likelihood of incurring catastrophic medical expenses. Also, Muslim households, female-headed households, households with members engaged as casual labourers and poorer households face higher odds of resorting to distress financing, and seeking informal or no healthcare. We also find that the multidimensional approach exhibits higher vulnerability for poor, ST, SC and Muslim households and portrays a more reliable picture of medical-care related catastrophe than what conventional approach of medical expenses catastrophe suggests. This is helpful in making key policy decisions by directing resources and tailoring services for the most vulnerable population sub-groups.
Key words:Catastrophic health expenses, Multidimensional vulnerability, Out-of-pocket health expenditure, Birbhum, West Bengal
Structural Features of Odisha Economy: A Study Using Input-Output Framework
Anvesak, Vol. 51 (2), pp. 38-51, Received: 28 May 2021; accepted: 29 Nov. 2021
Aditya Kumar Patra
Maharaja Sriram Chandra Bhanja Deo University, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, India
Abstract: The sectoral composition of the Odisha economy has undergone a structural shift over the years. One of the best ways to examine the structural relationship among the sectors in an economy is the Input-Output approach. This technique provides valuable insights into the interdependence of various sectors in an economy. Attempt has been made in this paper to examine this aspect. ‘Chenery-Watanabe linkages’ approach is used to study the structure of the economy. The approaches such as ‘Rasmussen Backward and Bulmer-Thomas Forward Linkages’ are applied for specification of key sectors. Finally, ‘Output and Income Multipliers’ approaches have been employed in order to lay emphasis on those sectors that are responsible for strengthening the production base of the state economy. It is observed that agro-based industries, along with mineral-based industries, have an edge over other sectors in the state economy.
Key Words:Inter-industry approach, Linkage analysis, Multiplier index, Odisha economy, Structural change
Determinants of Public Healthcare Spending in Odisha: A Time-Series Analysis
Anvesak, Vol. 51 (2), pp. 52-65, Received: 31 May. 2022; accepted: 19 July 2022
Jyotirmayee Rout and Shibalal Meher*
Nabakrushna Choudhury Centre for Development Studies, Bhubaneswar, India
Abstract: This paper presents the time series analysis of public healthcare spending in Odisha, one of the poorest states in India, using data from 1961-62 to 2019-20. The determinants of public healthcare spending are examined through the application of Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. The order of integration of time series variables is tested by utilizing ADF and PP models and to test the existence of cointegrating relationship between the variables the ARDL bounds-testing procedure has been adopted. The findings show that Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), population below 15 years of age, population above 65 years and urban population are the significant determinants of public healthcare spending in Odisha in the long run. With the growth of GSDP and population below 15 years, there is increase in healthcare expenditure; while with the growth of population above 65 and urban population, there is decrease in healthcare expenditure in the state. The long run income elasticity of 1.37 indicates that expenditure on public healthcare increases more than proportionately with the increase in income. But the very low share of healthcare spending in GSDP indicates that the allocation for healthcare is still not adequate and there is a need for restructuring of expenditure to release more funds for priority areas.
Key words: Public healthcare expenditure, Time-series analysis, ARDL bounds test, Odisha
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